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678 cases
A report in 2017 found 678 cases of femicide in Mexico. It illustrated a 31.7% increase in the number of women presumed victims of intentional homicide and a 42.6% increase in presumed cases of femicide between 2015 and 2017. The report detailed a further 61,040 women presumed victims of wilful injury.
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Amnesty International. Mexico Submission to the Committee on the Elimnation of Discrimination Against Women. London: Amnesty International Ltd, 2018, 5.

HyperSext City — a Monash University, XYX Lab research project

The HyperSext Repository is an online, bespoke website and data repository. The platform interactively collates and references data and research by crowdsourcing from communities, researchers and individuals across the globe.

Essential to Monash University XYX Lab’s ongoing local and international applied research is making gender data visible and generating new sources of data based on lived experience are important tools in developing gender-sensitive approaches to design, architecture and urbanism. Through the multi-modal tools of crowd-sourcing the HyperSext City repository surfaces, activates and amplifies the voices and experiences of a diverse range of people who are often not heard.

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of women surveyed In Mexico City by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography had experienced some form of sexual violence in public spaces.

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"One source of violence against women refugees is the smugglers or traffickers who facilitate their journeys to reach Europe. Women travelling alone, or just with children, are particularly vulnerable to attack, and during my interviews there were several accounts of women who had been raped or sexually assaulted on their journeys."

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Freedman, Jane. "Sexual and gender-based violence against refugee women: a hidden aspect of the refugee "crisis"." Reproductive health matters 24, no. 47 (2016): 18-26, 21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rhm.2016.05.00.

"You know sexual violence knows no race or color or gender or class. But the response to sexual violence does."

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Vera-Gray, F. "The Work of Creating Safety." In The Right Amount of Panic: How Women Trade Freedom for Safety, 79-106. Bristol: Bristol University Press, 2018. doi:10.2307/j.ctv301drp.7.

"In a safe and healthy city, women and girls are not discriminated against and can enjoy public spaces and public life without fear of being assaulted; they can access water and sanitation without putting themselves at risk of violence or infectious diseases."

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Garcia-Moreno, Claudia, and Manupreet Chawla. "Making Cities Safe for Women and Girls: Integrating a Gender Perspective into Urban Health and Planning." In Women's Health and the World's Cities, edited by Meleis Afaf Ibrahim, Birch Eugenie L., and Wachter Susan M., (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011), 53-70, 55.

"Part of women’s right to the city is the right to undertake risk in the pursuit of urban citizenship, and part of the experience of any truly libratory city is encounter with strangers, including strangers who make others feel uncomfortable."

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Whitzman, Carolyn, Crystal Legacy, and Caroline Andrew, eds. Building inclusive cities: Women's safety and the right to the city. Abingdon: Routledge, 2013.

"Safety should also not be conceptualized as a simple goal."

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Whitzman, Carolyn, Crystal Legacy, and Caroline Andrew, eds. Building inclusive cities: Women's safety and the right to the city. Abingdon: Routledge, 2013.

"The pandemic has also seen a disturbing increase in online abuse against girls. As quarantine means children spend more time online to access their education, social media or other forms of entertainment, they are increasingly exposed to cyberbullying, harmful content and sexual exploitation."

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Plan International, Save the Children International Asia. Because we Matter Addressing Covid19 and Violence against Girls in the Asia Pacific. Bangkok: Plan International Asia Pacific Hub, 2020, 8. https://plan-international.org/publications/because-we-matter#download-options.

"Street Harassment: the easiest way to debilitate a person’s liberty to walk the streets without fear."

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Roenius, Amanda. "My Name Is Not Beautiful, and, No, I Do Not Want to Smile: Paving the Path for Street Harassment Legislation in Illinois." DePaul L. Rev. 65 (2015): 831, 831. Accessed 1 December 2020. https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/deplr65&div=33&id=&page=.

"Some people are harassed for multiple reasons within a single harassment incident. Harassment is about power and control, and it is often a manifestation of societal discrimination like sexism, homophobia, Islamophobia, classism, ableism, and racism."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 2.

"To frame upskirting as only an invasion of privacy, perpetrated by 'sick' individuals, and occurring as a product of technological advancements, overlooked the gendered nature of the behavior and the objectification at the heart of upskirting."

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Thompson, Chrissy. “Skirting Around the Issue: Misdirection and Linguistic Avoidance in Parliamentary Discourses on Upskirting.” Violence Against Women 26, no. 11 (September 2020): 1403–1422, 1418. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801219870606.

"Technology-facilitated sexual violence refers to the use of mobile and online technologies as tools to 'blackmail, control, coerce, harass, humiliate, objectify or violate another person' and is overwhelmingly perpetrated by men against women."

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Thompson, Chrissy. “Skirting Around the Issue: Misdirection and Linguistic Avoidance in Parliamentary Discourses on Upskirting.” Violence Against Women 26, no. 11 (September 2020): 1403–1422, 1406. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801219870606.

"No form of harassment is ever OK; everyone should be treated with respect, dignity, and empathy."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 2.

"Increasing numbers of women, either alone or with family, are attempting to reach Europe to seek protection from conflict and violence in their countries, but these women are subject to violence during their journey and/or on arrival in a destination country."

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Freedman, Jane. "Sexual and gender-based violence against refugee women: a hidden aspect of the refugee" crisis"." Reproductive health matters 24, no. 47 (2016): 18-26 21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rhm.2016.05.00.

"We must enforce laws and policies against sexual harassment."

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Phillips, Kate, Ashlee, Amy, Kalms, Nicole and Matthewson, Gill . Reporting to Authorities: Girls' and Young Women's Experiences of Reporting Street Harassment. Melbourne: Plan International Australia, 2019, 10.

"Geolocative crowd mapping is a tool that provides women and girls with the opportunity to pool their experiences in cities for action and activism."

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Kalms, Nicole. "Digital technology and the safety of women and girls in urban space: Personal safety Apps or crowd-sourced activism tools?." In Architecture and Feminisms: Ecologies, Economies, Technologies. Abingdon: Routledge, 2017, 112-121, 116.

"Given the extent to which street harassment is trivialized and under-recognized as a form of harm, disclosure can function as an important means of challenging and disrupting the myths and misperceptions that all too readily fill the silences surrounding street harassment."

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Fileborn, Bianca. Reclaiming the night-time economy: Unwanted sexual attention in pubs and clubs. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

"Safety is presented as a personal choice, and as the function of an ability to exercise self-control in the face of temptation."

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Fileborn, Bianca. "Doing gender, doing safety? Young adults’ production of safety on a night out." Gender, Place & Culture 23, no. 8 (2016): 1107-1120, 1112.

"Every single report needs to be taken seriously. Every single report currently not made – for fear of belittlement, re-victimisation, or even further harassment – also needs to be taken seriously. Unless and until this happens, the cycle of underreporting, internalisation and social acceptance of street harassment will continue."

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Phillips, Kate, Amy Ashlee, Nicole Kalms, and Gill Matthewson. Reporting to Authorities: Girls' and Young Women's Experiences of Reporting Street Harassment. Melbourne: Plan International Australia, 2019, 6.

"The ‘relationship between the environment and opportunity for offending and victimization is well established in criminology,’ crime prevention strategies are still developing, and gender-sensitive approaches are lacking."

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Kalms, Niki. "Digital technology and the safety of women and girls in urban space: Personal safety Apps or crowd-sourced activism tools?." In Architecture and Feminisms: Ecologies, Economies, Technologies. Abingdon: Routledge, 2017, 114.

"An action that might be quickly forgotten by the perpetrator can linger for a long time with the target."

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Matthewson, Gill, Webb, Isabella, and Kalms, Nikki. Safety after dark: Creating a city for women living and working in Sydney. Sydney: Committee for Sydney, 2019, 7.

"By refusing to name upskirting as an act of misogyny and gendered harm, an everyday where such violence is excused and ignored has and continues to remain unchallenged."

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Thompson, Chrissy. “Skirting Around the Issue: Misdirection and Linguistic Avoidance in Parliamentary Discourses on Upskirting.” Violence Against Women 26, no. 11 (September 2020): 1403–1422, 1418. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801219870606.

"This separation of upskirters as 'other' and as wrong, uncivilized, and abnormal was achieved in a number of ways and, importantly, this worked to again misdirect attention away from ordinary men, ensuring that they were not identified as perpetrators of upskirting."

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Thompson, Chrissy. “Skirting Around the Issue: Misdirection and Linguistic Avoidance in Parliamentary Discourses on Upskirting.” Violence Against Women 26, no. 11 (September 2020): 1403–1422, 1415. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801219870606.

"Everyone including men and boys must reject sexist behaviour."

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Phillips, Kate, Amy Ashlee, Nicole Kalms, and Gill Matthewson. Reporting to Authorities: Girls' and Young Women's Experiences of Reporting Street Harassment. Melbourne: Plan International Australia, 2019, 10.

"For groups of men ‘on the hunt’ sexual harassment comprises entertainment. She is incidental, and her level of fear is irrelevant."

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Matthewson, Gill, Webb, Isabella and Kalms, Nikki. Safety after dark: Creating a city for women living and working in Sydney. Sydney: Committee for Sydney, 2019, 12.

"The construction of female nocturnal fear as ‘common sense’ has become internalized to the extent that it forms a gender stereotype."

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Roberts, Marion. "Gender, Fear and the Night-Time City." In Fair Shared Cities, pp. 67-82. Abingdon: Routledge, 2016. Accessed 30 November 2020. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781315581835/chapters/10.4324/9781315581835-10.

"Interrogations about the existence of a male partner, a train journey spent pretending to read to block out the man staring two seats over - experiences lived as routine and thus unremarkable, minimised and forgotten, ‘nothing really happened’."

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Vera-Gray, Fiona. Men's Intrusion, Women's Embodiment : A Critical Analysis of Street Harassment, Abingdon: Taylor & Francis Group, 2016. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/monash/detail.action?docID=4579004.Created from monash on 2020-11-18 18:44:24.

"Street harassment excludes women from public space, which they are entitled to share with men as equal citizens of the state."

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Mason-Bish, Hannah, and Irene Zempi. “Misogyny, Racism, and Islamophobia: Street Harassment at the Intersections.” Feminist Criminology 14, no. 5 (December 2019): 540–559, 555. https://doi.org/10.1177/1557085118772088.

"No uniform law currently exists to protect individuals from many types of street harassment, the fundamental rights to mobility and bodily integrity are not being met."

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Roenius, Amanda. "My Name Is Not Beautiful, and, No, I Do Not Want to Smile: Paving the Path for Street Harassment Legislation in Illinois." DePaul L. Rev. 65 (2015): 831, 831.

"The lack of coverage to missing/murdered Aboriginal women appears to suggest that their stories are not dramatic or worthy enough to tell, that Aboriginal women's victimization is too routine or ordinary, and/or irrelevant to (White) readers."

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Gilchrist, Kristen. "“Newsworthy” victims? Exploring differences in Canadian local press coverage of missing/murdered Aboriginal and White women." Feminist media studies 10, no. 4 (2010): 373-390, 375.

"Indigenous women were seen as threats to this urban transformation. Their bodies carried the capacity to reproduce the 'savagery' that colonizers sought to contain."

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Kern, Leslie. Feminist City: Claiming Space in a Man-Made World. Brooklyn: Verso, 2020. Accessed 17 November 2020. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/monash/detail.action?docID=6178348.

"I do not have the luxury of being. I am only seen as doing. As if my gender is something that is being done to them and not something that belongs to me. One time I had a waiter come up and ask if this was my 'Halloween Costume' when I was sitting at the table wearing a skirt."

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Vaid-Menon, Alok. Beyond the Gender Binary. New York: Penguin Books USA, 2020.

"Men want the other men they are with, as well as the target woman, to know they are looking at her in order to display their power over her and turn her into a sexual object."

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Sweeny, JoAnne. "Trapped in Public: The Regulation of Street Harassment and Cyber-Harassment under the Captive Audience Doctrine." Nev. LJ 17 (2016): 651, 651.

"Police in Swaziland in 2012 banned women from wearing mini-skirts, any shirts revealing the midriff, and low-cut jeans."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 6.

"The very everyday experiences of catcalling and sexual harassment serve to reinforce fear as women are constantly sexualized, objectified, and made to feel uncomfortable in public spaces."

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Kern, Leslie. Feminist City: Claiming Space in a Man-Made World. Brooklyn: Verso, 2020.

"The intersection of race, gender, mobility and violence is central to the numerous cases of missing and murdered Indigenous women and demonstrates the importance of not treating mobility as neutral, but seeing it as political and unequal."

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Morton, Katherine. "Hitchhiking and missing and murdered indigenous women: A critical discourse analysis of billboards on the highway of tears." Canadian journal of sociology 41, no. 3 (2016): 299-326, 300.

"Highway 16 in Northwestern British Columbia is named The Highway of Tears for the substantial (although uncertain) number of Indigenous women who have disappeared."

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Morton, Katherine. "Hitchhiking and missing and murdered indigenous women: A critical discourse analysis of billboards on the highway of tears." Canadian journal of sociology 41, no. 3 (2016): 299-326, 300.

"In January 2012, the director of police for the state of Andhra Pradesh in south India, V. Dinesh Reddy, told a press conference that the police cannot be faulted for rises in the numbers of rape cases and blamed women for provoking men with 'fashionable clothing' such as the salwar kameez."

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Mitra, Durba. "Critical perspectives on SlutWalks in India." Feminist studies 38, no. 1 (2012): 254-261, 257. doi: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/23269181.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A0170e66e39a203831ba17b83a7debd0b.

"Conformity by dress denoted respect for cultural norms and also acted as a shelter from potential danger, from unwanted male attention…This was a coping mechanism that would enable them to manage the host’s behaviour and lead to a more fulfilling tourist experience."

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Brown, Lorraine, and Hanaa Osman. "The female tourist experience in Egypt as an Islamic destination." Annals of Tourism Research 63 (2017): 12-22, 19.

"Their opportunities for walking around the streets alone, for meeting members of the host community and other travellers are seriously curtailed. The sexualised gaze, primarily exercised by men, prohibits them from being the flaneuse they might like to be on holiday."

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Brown, Lorraine, and Hanaa Osman. "The female tourist experience in Egypt as an Islamic destination." Annals of Tourism Research 63 (2017): 12-22 14.

"Clothing practices provide important insights about women’s mobility within Jerusalem’s disputed and gendered urban geography."

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Raanan, Malka, Greenberg, and Nufar Avni. "(Ad) dressing belonging in a contested space: Embodied spatial practices of Palestinian and Israeli women in Jerusalem." Political Geography 76 (2020): 102090, 1-10, 2. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2019.

"Naomi at first reveals that wearing a short dress will limit her freedom to go into many areas in the city. Yet she then expresses her resistance, saying she 'would not care.' While describing her feeling when crossing over into a Palestinian neighborhood the issue of modesty transforms into an issue of ethno-nationality."

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Raanan, Malka, Greenberg, and Nufar Avni. "(Ad) dressing belonging in a contested space: Embodied spatial practices of Palestinian and Israeli women in Jerusalem." Political Geography 76 (2020): 102090, 1- 10, 7. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2019.

"I felt that everyone was staring at me thinking 'what is she doing with Jewish women.’ I then did something distorted that I will never do again. I took my hijab off…I tried to fit in."

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Raanan, Malka, Greenberg, and Nufar Avni. "(Ad) dressing belonging in a contested space: Embodied spatial practices of Palestinian and Israeli women in Jerusalem." Political Geography 76 (2020): 102090, 1-10, 1. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2019.

"Experiences of feeling out of place especially affect women who are stigmatized by dominant narratives of women’s traditional roles (as in the domestic sphere) while they commute to and from work as an economic necessity."

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Parikh, Aparna. "Politics of presence: women’s safety and respectability at night in Mumbai, India." Gender, Place & Culture 25, no. 5 (2018): 695-710, 698. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2017.1400951.

"Demands to criminalise violence against women in public space intensified after the circulation of a video of a girl being assaulted by a group of teenage boys in a bus in Casablanca in August 2017."

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Chafai, Habiba. "Everyday gendered violence: women’s experiences of and discourses on street sexual harassment in Morocco." The Journal of North African Studies (2020): 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/13629387.2020.1743184.

"In March 2019, a young woman in Marrakech lost her life because of sexual harassment while waiting in a bus station; her ‘mistake’ was to verbally react to her harasser."

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Chafai, Habiba. "Everyday gendered violence: women’s experiences of and discourses on street sexual harassment in Morocco." The Journal of North African Studies (2020): 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/13629387.2020.1743184.

"The threat of sexual harassment remains a constant in Iranian women’s lives and the necessity of speaking up about these incidents is central to raising awareness on such experiences."

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Chubin, Fae. “You May Smother My Voice, but You Will Hear My Silence: An Autoethnography on Street Sexual Harassment, the Discourse of Shame and  Women’s Resistance in Iran.” Sexualities 17, no. 1–2 (January 2014): 176–193, 178. https://doi.org/10.1177/1363460713511097.

"Oppression is the 'absence of choices'; street harassment oppresses veiled Muslim women by restricting their physical and geographical mobility, thereby denying them a right guaranteed to all citizens—the freedom of movement, a fundamental liberty of freedom."

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Mason-Bish, Hannah, and Irene Zempi. “Misogyny, Racism, and Islamophobia: Street Harassment at the Intersections.” Feminist Criminology 14, no. 5 (December 2019): 540–559, 555. https://doi.org/10.1177/1557085118772088.

"Street harassment excludes women from public space, which they are entitled to share with men as equal citizens of the state."

+ Show source

Mason-Bish, Hannah, and Irene Zempi. “Misogyny, Racism, and Islamophobia: Street Harassment at the Intersections.” Feminist Criminology 14, no. 5 (December 2019): 540–559, 555. https://doi.org/10.1177/1557085118772088.

"The oppressed are not only out of power; they are also out of place."

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De Backer, Mattias. "Street harassment and social control of young Muslim women in Brussels: destabilising the public/private binary." Journal of Gender-Based Violence 4, no. 3 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1332/239868020X15986402157121.

"Women are cautious of the social rather than the material night."

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De Backer, Mattias. "Street harassment and social control of young Muslim women in Brussels: destabilising the public/private binary." Journal of Gender-Based Violence 4, no. 3 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1332/239868020X15986402157121.

252 undergraduate students
252 female undergraduate students at a large U.S. Northeastern university were surveyed. Findings indicated that street harassment was positively related to anxiety and depression as well as negatively related to sleep quality.
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DelGreco, Maria, and John Christensen. "Effects of Street Harassment on Anxiety, Depression, and Sleep Quality of College Women." Sex Roles 82, no. 4 (2019): 473-481, 473. doi: 10.1007/s11199-019-01064-6.

"Men want the other men they are with, as well as the target woman, to know they are looking at her in order to display their power over her and turn her into a sexual object."

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Sweeny, JoAnne. "Trapped in Public: The Regulation of Street Harassment and Cyber-Harassment under the Captive Audience Doctrine." Nev. LJ 17 (2016): 651, 651.

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60
A study on women’s safety found that on the Bus Rapid Transit system in Barranquilla, Colombia 60% of respondents had experienced sexual harassment.
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Orozco-Fontalvo, Mauricio, José, Arévalo, Andrea Soto and Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios. "Women's perceived risk of sexual harassment in a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system: The case of Barranquilla, Colombia." Journal of Transport & Health 14, no. 1 (2019): 100598, 1.

90
In Delhi, over 90% of women have experienced sexual violence in public spaces.
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Zietz, Susannah, and Madhumita Das. "‘Nobody teases good girls’: A qualitative study on perceptions of sexual harassment among young men in a slum of Mumbai." Global public health 13, no. 9 (2018): 1229-1240, 1229.

5
A Latin American study estimated that only around 5% of adult victims of sexual violence reported the incident to the police.
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Contreras, J. Manuel. Sexual Violence in Latin America and the Carribbean: A Desk Review. Pretoria: Sexual Violence Research Initiative, 2010, 9.     

78
Gender-based discrimination (78%) was identified as the most common form of discrimination affecting the incidents in Madrid.
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Kalms, Nicole, Matthewson, Gill, and Tanner Sophie. Free to Be. Madrid. Surrey: Plan International, 2019.

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90
The workforce of Protective Service Officers in Melbourne, Victoria has 90% male and 10% female officers.
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Independent Broad-based Anti-corruption Commission.Transit Protective Services Officers. An exploration of corruption and misconduct risks. Melbourne: Independent Broad-based Anti-corruption Commission, 2016, 8.

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87
Australian data suggests thats 87% of victim surviors of sexual violence do not report to police.
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Fileborn, Bianca, Wadds, Phillip and Tomsen, Stephen. "Sexual harassment and violence at Australian music festivals: Reporting practices and experiences of festival attendees." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 53, no. 2 (2020):194–212, 195.

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A 2018 YouGov poll of UK-based festival attendees indicated that two in five young women had experienced sexual harassment at a music festival, while 17% of young women under the age of 40 years reported having been sexually assaulted.
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Fileborn, Bianca, Phillip, Wadds and Stephen, Tomsen. "Sexual harassment and violence at Australian music festivals: Reporting practices and experiences of festival attendees." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 53, no. 2 (2020):194–212, 195.

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15
For every three months the lockdown continues globally, an extra 15 million gender-based violence cases are expected.
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Plan International Asia Pacific Hub. Because we Matter Addressing Covid19 and Violence against Girls in the Asia Pacific. Bangkok: Plan International Asia Pacific Hub, 2020.

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4
Research comparing comments on videos from two popular YouTubers found that the woman received critical or hostile feedback four times as often as the man, and half of the woman’s negative feedback was sexually or aggressively harassing.
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Vitak, Jessica, Chadha, Kalyani, Steiner, Linda and Zahra Ashktorab. "Identifying women's experiences with and strategies for mitigating negative effects of online harassment." In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, Portland, 2017, pp. 1231-1245, 1233. New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

26
Teenage girls are far more likely to face such attacks than boys, with data highlighting that young women experience stalking and sexual harassment at “disproportionately high levels,” with a Pew study finding that 26% of women reported being stalked online and 25% were the target of online sexual harassment.
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Vitak, Jessica, Chadha, Kalyani, Steiner, Linda and Zahra Ashktorab. "Identifying women's experiences with and strategies for mitigating negative effects of online harassment." In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, Portland, 2017, pp. 1231-1245, 1233. New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

25 x
Researchers who set up fake online user identities found that users with female sounding names were 25 times more likely to receive threatening and/or sexually explicit messages on an online forum than male-sounding names.
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Vitak, Jessica, Chadha, Kalyani, Steiner, Linda and Zahra Ashktorab. "Identifying women's experiences with and strategies for mitigating negative effects of online harassment." In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, Portland, 2017, pp. 1231-1245, 1231. New York: Association for Computing Machinery.

41
Persons of color were more likely than White people to say they experienced street harassment sometimes, often, or daily (41% versus 24%). White people were more likely than other racial groups to report having experienced harassment once or rarely.
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Kearl, Holly. Unsafe and harassed in public spaces: A national street harassment report. Reston: Stop Street Harassment, 2014, 18.

67
Streets and sidewalks are the public spaces where street harassment most commonly occurs (67% of women and 43% of men reported harassment there), but harassment also happened in public spaces such as stores, restaurants, movie theaters, and malls (26% of women and 28% of men). It also happened on public transportation (20% of women and 16% of men).
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Kearl, Holly. Unsafe and harassed in public spaces: A national street harassment report. Reston: Stop Street Harassment, 2014, 6.

49
Research on sexual risk in commuter trains in Japan reveals that 48.7% of women aged 20 years or more had at least one experience of being harassed.
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Neupane, Gita, and Chesney-Lind, Meda. "Violence against women on public transport in Nepal: Sexual harassment and the spatial expression of male privilege." International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 38, no. 1 (2014): 23-38, 25.

24
In a research project with 3,706 primary schoolchildren from Uganda, 24 per cent of 11 to 14-year-old girls with disabilities reported sexual violence at school, compared to 12 per cent of non-disabled girls.
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Devries, Karen M., Kyegombe, Nambusi, Zuurmond, Maria, Parkes, Jenny, Child, Jennifer C., Walakira, Eddy J. and Dipak Naker. "Violence against primary school children with disabilities in Uganda: a cross-sectional study." BMC public health 14, no. 1 (2014): 1-9, 1.

91
This research paper found that 63% of women in university settings in Spain experience a form of gendered violence. It also addresses reporting issues, finding that 91% of victims did not report the incident, among victimised students 66% did tell smeone about the incident e.g. friend or family member.
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Valls, Rosa, Puigvert, Lídia, Melgar, Patricia and Garcia-Yeste Carme . "Breaking the silence at spanish universities: findings from the first study of violence against women on campuses in Spain." Violence against women 22, no. 13 (2016): 1519-1539, 1529, 1519.

"Nepali women are extremely susceptible to male harassment while using public transportation services and that most Nepali women will experience some type of harassment (i.e., verbal, non-verbal, or physical) during their lifetime while traveling either to college or to a place of employment."

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Rosenbaum, Mark S., Edwards, Karen L., Binayak, Malla, Adhikary, Regmi. Jyoti and Germán Contreras Ramírez. "Street harassment is marketplace discrimination: The impact of street harassment on young female consumers’ marketplace experiences." Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 57 (2020): 102220, 5.

"Some researchers have shown that male harassers rationalize this deviant behavior as their religious right, which includes punishing women for taking on professional work, wearing certain clothing, or viewing women as sexual objects who exist to please men."

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Rosenbaum, Mark S., Edwards, Karen L., Binayak, Malla, Adhikary, Regmi. Jyoti and Germán Contreras Ramírez. "Street harassment is marketplace discrimination: The impact of street harassment on young female consumers’ marketplace experiences." Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 57 (2020): 102220, 6.

"We might not want to think about the limits we put on ourselves because we think to do so is to admit a weakness, or because we feel we mostly do what we want to do anyway. And if the changes we make are disguised and dismissed as just common sense."

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Vera-Gray, Fiona. The Right Amount of Panic: How Women Trade Freedom for Safety. Bristol: Bristol University Press, 2018, 80.

"And what about you? If you’re a woman reading this, when is the first time that you remember attention from an unknown man in public? Being told to cheer up, being stared at, a whistle, a car horn, a comment, followed, touched? Singled out from all those that now you’ve learnt to block or manage."

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Vera-Gray, Fiona. The Right Amount of Panic: How Women Trade Freedom for Safety. Bristol: Bristol University Press, 2018, 4.

"For centuries, people have stereotyped women of color as overly sexual, promiscuous, and/or sexually available, particularly compared to white women."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop street harassment: Making public places safe and welcoming for women. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2010, 47.

"The United States is a racist society in which there is police brutality against and swift and harsh sentencing of men of color. This reality makes many women of color unwilling to publicly call out or report men of their race who engage in acts of gender violence, including street harassment."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop street harassment: Making public places safe and welcoming for women. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2010, 52.

"While women of color may be more hesitant to identify the behavior of men of color as harassment or to report it because of racial solidarity, white women may be more inclined to identify men of color as harassers because of racism."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop street harassment: Making public places safe and welcoming for women. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2010, 52.

"This is the epitome of heterosexual male privilege: assuming every woman he sees on the street is single, heterosexual or bisexual, and interested in his attention. This assumption wholly denies the sexual identity of lesbian women."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop street harassment: Making public places safe and welcoming for women. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2010, 54.

"A lower-class lesbian Latina who walks with a cane may face many more forms of street harassment or experience harassment differently than an upper-class white heterosexual able-bodied woman. Understanding how women from all backgrounds experience street harassment is an essential step toward working to end it."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop street harassment: Making public places safe and welcoming for women. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2010, 45.

"Men are the perpetrators of gender-based street harassment and many men engage in it to impress each other or to prove their masculinity."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop street harassment: Making public places safe and welcoming for women. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2010, 203.

"Indigenous women were seen as threats to this urban transformation. Their bodies carried the capacity to reproduce the “savagery” that colonizers sought to contain."

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Kern, Leslie. Feminist City: Claiming Space in a Man-Made World. Brooklyn: Verso, 2020, 2.

"Street harassment limits resources and opportunities that should otherwise be available, including an education, employment, recreation, political participation, and positions of leadership. Harassment can be used as a tool to intimidate people, to make them leave and give up."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 4.

"A man in New York slashed the throat of a woman who refused to go on a date with him. A man in Seattle pulled out a gun after a woman ignored his repeated invitations to 'hang out.'"

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Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 8.

"A harasser in England put a woman in a hospital after punching her when she told him to stop touching her."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 8.

"A woman in Detroit was shot dead by a harasser after refusing to give him her phone number."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 8.

"A harasser killed a Chicago man in front of the man’s 15-year-old daughter after he confronted the harasser for making 'inappropriate gestures' at her."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 8.

"We were starting to understand that we were never supposed to be alone around boys and that we needed to always have a plan for our own safety. There’s no way I can do justice to the puberty years and describe all the messages girls receive."

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Kern, Leslie. Feminist City: Claiming Space in a Man-Made World. Brooklyn: Verso, 2020, 87.

"When communities advocate for 'spaces for youth,' the kinds of spaces they come up with are skate parks, basketball courts, and hockey arenas. In other words, spaces that have boys in mind as users, and where girls have trouble finding access, acceptance, and safety."

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Kern, Leslie. Feminist City: Claiming Space in a Man-Made World. Brooklyn: Verso, 2020, 44.

"The message comes in like an IV drip, building up in our systems so gradually that once we become aware of it, it’s fully dissolved in the bloodstream. It’s already natural, common sense, inherent."

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Kern, Leslie. Feminist City: Claiming Space in a Man-Made World. Brooklyn: Verso, 2020, 87.

"In Brazil, between January and August 2014, 12 young women aged 13–29 were shot and killed by a motorcyclist as they stood in public spaces, simply for being female."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 8.

"In Germany, Tugce Albayrak, a 23-year-old student, died at the hands of a street harasser."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 8.

"A Philadelphia man was hospitalized after he told a harasser to watch what he was saying to women nearby and the harasser got out of his vehicle and attacked him."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 8.

"Reasons for non-reporting are varied and complex... Given the treatment of sexual violence by the criminal justice system, survivors may also fear victim-blaming or retraumatising responses within the system, making non-reporting a strategic choice."

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Fileborn, Bianca, Phillip Wadds, and Stephen Tomsen. "Sexual harassment and violence at Australian music festivals: Reporting practices and experiences of festival attendees." Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology (2020): 1-19, 3.

"A woman visits a bar in an unfamiliar location for the first time... A man in the bar, a stranger to her, stares persistently throughout the night."

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Fileborn, Bianca. Reclaiming the night-time economy: Unwanted sexual attention in pubs and clubs. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, 231.

"The boundaries of what constitutes unwanted sexual attention are blurred by the occurrence of consensual sexual interaction and expression of sexual desire in venues, and by young people’s understandings of normative and ‘reasonable’ sexual expressions."

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Fileborn, Bianca. Reclaiming the night-time economy: Unwanted sexual attention in pubs and clubs. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, 233.

"An Egyptian teenager was stabbed to death while stopping to help young women experiencing harassment."

+ Show source

Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 39.

"In India, the National Slum Dwellers Federation and Mahila Milan installed community toilets managed by local women and accessible on a pay-and-use system, an example of gender-based planning that greatly improved safety and cleanliness."

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Garcia-Moreno, Claudia, and Manupreet Chawla. "Making Cities Safe for Women and Girls: Integrating a Gender Perspective into Urban Health and Planning." In Women's Health and the World's Cities, edited by Meleis Afaf Ibrahim, Birch Eugenie L., and Wachter Susan M., (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011), 53-70, 59.

"170 million urban residents have no access to even the simplest forms of latrine, which forces them to defecate in the open...Women and girls often delay going outside to relieve themselves and only do so at night, which makes them more vulnerable to violence and adds to their insecurity in public spaces."

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Garcia-Moreno, Claudia, and Manupreet Chawla. "Making Cities Safe for Women and Girls: Integrating a Gender Perspective into Urban Health and Planning." In Women's Health and the World's Cities, edited by Meleis Afaf Ibrahim, Birch Eugenie L., and Wachter Susan M., (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011), 53-70, 59.

"To promote the good use of spaces, women in Nairobi, Kenya, have adopted a creative initiative called 'Adopt-a-Light Limited,' with the goal of ensuring that women can travel city streets without experiencing any form of violence... The program has successfully installed 185 streetlights along the major highways and in the slums."

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Garcia-Moreno, Claudia, and Manupreet Chawla. "Making Cities Safe for Women and Girls: Integrating a Gender Perspective into Urban Health and Planning." In Women's Health and the World's Cities, edited by Meleis Afaf Ibrahim, Birch Eugenie L., and Wachter Susan M., (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011), 53-70, 63.

"In Brazil, between January and August 2014, 12 young women aged 13–29 were shot and killed by a motorcyclist as they stood in public spaces, simply for being female."

+ Show source

Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 8.

22
A British study showed that 22% of people with disabilities interviewed had suffered harassment in public due to their disability.
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Iudici, Antonio. "Sexual harassment against people with mental disabilities in transit environments: implications for services and clinics." In Safety and security in transit environments, (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2015), 328-343, 333.

39
A study in Austria found that 39% of sexual harassment offences took place in transit settings. Of these, 71% were inside the vehicles as compared to 29% at transit stops.
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Stark, Juliane, and Meschik, Michael. "Women’s everyday mobility: Frightening situations and their impacts on travel behaviour." Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour 54 (2018): 311-323, 318.

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3
An estimated 3 million women in France aged 20-69 are subjected to unwanted sexual advances in public spaces each year, and more than one million women experience sexual harassment and abuse. The vast majority of perpetrators are men.
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Lebugle, Amandine. "Young women in large cities are the main victims of violence in public space." Population Societies 550, no. 11 (2017): 1-4, 4.

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40
A French study on violence found that at ages 20-24, 40% of women reported unwanted sexual advances and 14% mentioned sexual harassment and abuse while using public spaces.
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Lebugle, Amandine. "Young women in large cities are the main victims of violence in public space." Population Societies 550, no. 11 (2017): 1-4, 3.

90
A report by the National Institute for Women (INMUJERES) found that 9 out of every 10 women will be sexually assaulted at minimum once in their life while using public transportation in Mexico City. (change graphic)
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Dunckel Graglia, Amy. "Finding mobility: Women negotiating fear and violence in Mexico City’s public transit system." Gender, Place & Culture 23, no. 5 (2016): 624-640, 624.

80
A 2008 National Board for the Prevention of Discrimination (CONAPRED) survey on gender-based violence in public transportation, found that in the year of the survey, 8 out of 10 women had been a victim of sexual crime, 43.8% having suffered four or more violent situations, and 10% having suffered seven or more. (change numeral graphic)
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Dunckel Graglia, Amy. "Finding mobility: Women negotiating fear and violence in Mexico City’s public transit system." Gender, Place & Culture 23, no. 5 (2016): 624-640, 626.

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25
A 2017 survey indicated that every 1 in 4 urban Pakistani women had been stalked by men on their way to home, office, and market. (change number graphic)
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Ahmed, Bilal, Farhan Navid Yousaf, and Umm-e-Rubab Asif. "Combating Street Harassment: A Challenge for Pakistan." Women & Criminal Justice 0, (2019): 1-11, 1.

80
A 2018 study showed that 80% of women in Pakistan experience harassment in their day-to-day life.
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Ahmed, Bilal, Farhan Navid Yousaf, and Umm-e-Rubab Asif. "Combating Street Harassment: A Challenge for Pakistan." Women & Criminal Justice 0, (2019): 1-11, 2.

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50
School and college students in Delhi reported the maximum number of incidents of physical and verbal sexual harassment – 50% reported having been harassed while using public transport and 42% having faced harassment while waiting for public transport.
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Tripathi, Kartikeya, Borrion, Hervé and Belur, Jyoti. "Sexual harassment of students on public transport: an exploratory study in Lucknow, India." Crime prevention and community safety 19, no. 3-4 (2017): 240-250, 241.

90
90% of girls between the ages of 10-18 are victims of Eve teasing in Bangladesh. Eve teasing is a colloquialism in South East Asia which refers to public sexual harassment or molestation of women. Eve alludes to the biblical story of the first woman.
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Islam, A., and T. Amin. 2016. “Eve teasing in Bangladesh: An Overview.” IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSRJHSS) 21, no. 11: 1–6, 1.

"Sexual harassment against girls and women in Bangladesh is turning deadly, 28 women have committed suicide this year and another seven attempted it to escape frequent sexual harassment."

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Islam, A., and T. Amin. 2016. “Eve teasing in Bangladesh: An Overview.” IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSRJHSS) 21, no. 11: 1–6, 2.

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40
An onboard passenger survey conducted by Los Angeles Metro found that 40% of riders who had identified their gender as “nonbinary” had experienced sexual harassment on transit over the last six months, while only 26% of riders identifying as female and 21% of riders identifying as male reported experiencing sexual harassment.
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Ding, Hao, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, and Asha Weinstein Agrawal. "Sexual Harassment and Assault in Transit Environments: A Review of the English-language Literature." Journal of Planning Literature 35, no. 3 (2020): 267-280, 271.

81
A survey of 200 female transit users of the metro in Baku, Azerbaijan, reported that eight in ten women (81%) had experienced sexual harassment.
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Gekoski, Anna, Gray, M. Jacqueline, Horvath, AH Miranda, Edwards, Sarah, Emirali, Aliye and Adler, R. Joanna. What works' in reducing sexual harassment and sexual offences on public transport nationally and internationally: a rapid evidence assessment. London: Middlesex University, British Transport Police and the Department for Transport, 2015, 17.

61
40% of bus users and 61% of railway users felt the need to use precautionary measures when in transit. The most prevalent precaution among students was ‘dressing in a certain way.’
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Seiji, Shibata. “TOKYO, JAPAN”. In Transit Crime and Sexual Violence in Cities. International Evidence and Prevention,  edited By Vania Ceccato, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, 45-53. New York: Routledge, 2020, 50.

25
When asked whether respondents felt safe waiting for transit such as buses or trains during nighttime, the rate of those who ‘never or rarely feel safe’ was approx 25% among women.
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Seiji, Shibata. “TOKYO, JAPAN”. In Transit Crime and Sexual Violence in Cities. International Evidence and Prevention,  edited By Vania Ceccato, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, 45-53. New York: Routledge, 2020, 49.

67
Of the women who experienced sexual harassment or crime, 37.4% (34/91) of women answered they had reported it to someone, **67.6%** of women reported their experience to their friends, and 38.2% reported it to their parents. Contrastingly, 46.2% of men reported it to police, and 30.8% to the driver/operator of the vehicle.Such findings suggest that women are less trusting of authorities than men and prefer sharing their experience with those close to them.
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Seiji, Shibata. “TOKYO, JAPAN”. In Transit Crime and Sexual Violence in Cities. International Evidence and Prevention,  edited By Vania Ceccato, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, 45-53. New York: Routledge, 2020, 49.

20
According to 2018 Tokyo Metropolitan Police statistics, approximately half of groping incidences occur on trains and 20% at stations.
+ Show source

Seiji, Shibata. “TOKYO, JAPAN”. In Transit Crime and Sexual Violence in Cities. International Evidence and Prevention,  edited By Vania Ceccato, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, 45-53. New York: Routledge, 2020, 47.

47
A study of Japanese university students who use public transit found the top three reasons for not reporting harassment were wanting to avoid further trouble (47.4%), not thinking it was serious (36.8%), and being embarrassed (33.3%).
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Seiji, Shibata. “TOKYO, JAPAN”. In Transit Crime and Sexual Violence in Cities. International Evidence and Prevention,  edited By Vania Ceccato, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, 45-53. New York: Routledge, 2020, 49.

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2
In a small-scale study of university students using public transit in Nigeria, women were 2.2 times more likely to experience non-verbal sexual harassment than males.
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Otu, Smart E., and Agugua Augustine O. “LAGOS, NIGERIA”. In Transit Crime and Sexual Violence in Cities. International Evidence and Prevention,  edited By Vania Ceccato, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, 80-86. New York: Routledge, 2020, 83.

12 x
In a study of university students using public transit in Nigeria, LGBTQI students were 12 times more likely than heterosexual students to experience non-verbal sexual harassment during transit.
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Otu, Smart E., and Agugua Augustine O. “LAGOS, NIGERIA”. In Transit Crime and Sexual Violence in Cities. International Evidence and Prevention,  edited By Vania Ceccato, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, 80-86. New York: Routledge, 2020, 83.

7 x
In a study of university students using public transit in Nigeria, LGBTQI respondents were 7.7 times more likely to experience physical sexual violence.
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Otu, Smart E., and Agugua Augustine O. “LAGOS, NIGERIA”. In Transit Crime and Sexual Violence in Cities. International Evidence and Prevention,  edited By Vania Ceccato, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, 80-86. New York: Routledge, 2020, 83.

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75
Women frequently experience unwanted sexual touching and persistent advances at bars and parties. This study explored women’s responses to these unwanted experiences through online surveys completed by 153 female bargoers (aged 19- 29). More than 75% had experienced sexual touching or persistence (46% both).
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Graham, Kathryn, Bernards, Sharon, Antonia, Abbey, Dumas, Tara M. and Wells Samantha. "When women do not want it: Young female bargoers’ experiences with and responses to sexual harassment in social drinking contexts." Violence against women 23, no. 12 (2017): 1419-1441, 1419.

20
This US-based research looked at the prevalence of stranger harassment in women's lives. It found that catcalls, whistles or stares were experienced monthly by 32% of respondents and unwanted sexual attention experienced by 40% of respondents. A large minority of 31% reported experiencing catcalls, whistles or stares from a stranger every couple of days. 36% were the victim of unwanted touching or stroking from strangers once a month.
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Fairchild, Kimberly, and A. Rudman, Laurie. "Everyday stranger harassment and women’s objectification." Social Justice Research 21, no. 3 (2008): 338-357, 349.

"In Honduras, GBV is the second leading cause of death for women who are of reproductive age."

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Obinna, Denise N. "Seeking sanctuary: violence against women in El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala." Violence against women (2020): 1-22, 1.

61
Women with disabilities have increased vulnerability to sexual harassment 61% of women with disabilities experienced sexual harassment since the age of 15, compared to 54% of women without disabilities in the EU.
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European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. Violence Against Women: An EU Wide Survey. Main Results, Vienna: European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2015.

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2
A survey conducted in adults aged 16 to 59 years in England and Wales found that women with disabilities are twice as likely to have experienced sexual assault than women without disabilities.
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UN Women. Sexual Harassment Against Women With Disabilities in the World of Work and On Campus. New York: UN Women, 2020, 3.

61
In a study from the Netherlands, 61% of women with disabilities reported sexual violence, as compared to 33% of women without disabilities.
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UN Women. Sexual Harassment Against Women With Disabilities in the World of Work and On Campus. New York: UN Women, 2020, 12.

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89
In Australia, 89% of women with disabilities and 68% of men with disabilities have experienced sexual harassment. In the workplace persons with disabilities are more likely than those without to have been sexually harassed (44% and 32% respectively).
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Australian Human Rights Commission . Everyone’s Business: Fourth National Survey on Sexual Harassment in Australian Workplaces. Sydney: Australian Human Rights Commission, 2018, 9.

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32
31.6% of female undergraduates with disabilities experienced some type of sexual violence on campus, compared to 18.6 % of female undergraduates without a disability.
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National Council on Disability. Not on the Radar: Sexual Assault of College Students with Disabilities. Washington: National Council on Disability, 2018, 3.

31
When surveyed about levels of worry about being physically or sexually assaulted by any perpetrator 31% of women in Finland answered ‘sometimes’ in the last 12 months.
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European Agency for Fundamental Rights. Violence against women: an EU-Wide Survey. Main Results. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015, 142.

43
In Zimbabwe, 43% of women reported physical abuse and 22% sexual harassment in their communities.
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ActionAid. Women and the City III: A summary of baseline data on women’s experience of violence in seven countries. Johannesburg: ActionAid, 2015, 17.

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77
Some 77% of women in Cambodia experienced verbal abuse or sexual remarks, and 25% reported experiencing physical abuse.
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ActionAid. Women and the City III: A summary of baseline data on women’s experience of violence in seven countries. Johannesburg: ActionAid, 2015, 17.

90
In Nepal, 90% of women and girls ActionAid interviewed had experienced sexual harassment in a public space, yet only 11% had ever reported it to the police.
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ActionAid. Women and the City III: A summary of baseline data on women’s experience of violence in seven countries. Johannesburg: ActionAid, 2015, 16.

"In South Africa, only 12% of women and girls interviewed by ActionAid felt safe from verbal and physical abuse in their neighbourhoods and 80% of women had experienced some form of abuse in the past year."

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ActionAid. Women and the City III: A summary of baseline data on women’s experience of violence in seven countries. Johannesburg: ActionAid, 2015, 5.

age 17
In the United States, street harassment begins at a young age. Around 50% of harassed women and men experienced street harassment by age 17.
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Stop Street Harassment. Unsafe and Harassed in Public Spaces: A National Street Harassment Report. Virginia: Stop Street Harassment, 2014, 18.

70
Being harassed by one man was cited as the most common experience by both women (70%) and men (48%). It was also common to be harassed by two or more men (38% of women and 25% of men). Twenty percent of men said their harasser was a lone woman.
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Stop Street Harassment. Unsafe and Harassed in Public Spaces: A National Street Harassment Report. Virginia: Stop Street Harassment, 2014, 7.

93
Research in Afghanistan found that 93% (n = 321) had experience sexual harassment in public places.
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Fileborn, Bianca, and Vera-Gray Fiona. "“I want to be able to walk the street without fear”: Transforming justice for street harassment." Feminist Legal Studies 25, no. 2 (2017): 203-227, 206.

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80
Sexual orientation and gender expression were the most common reasons LGBT students were harassed or assaulted at school. More than 80% of students reported being verbally harassed (e.g., called names or threatened) at school because of their sexual orientation; nearly two thirds were verbally harassed because of their gender expression.
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Kosciw, Joseph G , Greytak, Emily A., Bartkiewicz, Mark J., Boesen, Madelyn. J., & Palmer, Neal. A. . The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network, 2012, 23.

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4 in 10
4 in 10 students reported being physically harassed (e.g., pushed or shoved) at school because of their sexual orientation. - and 11.2% reported that this harassment occurred often or frequently.
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Kosciw, Joseph G , Greytak, Emily A., Bartkiewicz, Mark J., Boesen, Madelyn. J., & Palmer, Neal. A. . The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network, 2012, 23.

1 in 5 students
1 in 5 five students reported being physically assaulted (e.g., punched, kicked, or injured with a weapon) at school in the past year because of their sexual orientation, gender expression, or gender.
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Kosciw, Joseph G , Greytak, Emily A., Bartkiewicz, Mark J., Boesen, Madelyn. J., & Palmer, Neal. A. . The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network, 2012, 23.

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More than half of the students reported experiencing some form of electronic harassment (“cyberbullying”) in the past year.
+ Show source

Kosciw, Joseph G , Greytak, Emily A., Bartkiewicz, Mark J., Boesen, Madelyn. J., & Palmer, Neal. A. . The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network, 2012, 23.

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64
Almost two thirds of LGBT students (63.9%) were verbally harassed at school because of their gender expression.
+ Show source

Kosciw, Joseph G , Greytak, Emily A., Bartkiewicz, Mark J., Boesen, Madelyn. J., & Palmer, Neal. A. . The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network, 2012, 23.

"Survey participants were asked how often they had experienced sexual harassment at school, such as unwanted touching or sexual remarks directed at them. As shown in Figure 1.17, about two thirds (64.4%) of LGBT students had been sexually harassed at school, and nearly a fifth (18.7 %) reported that such events occurred often or frequently."

+ Show source

Bartkiewicz, Mark J., Boesen, Madelyn. J., & Palmer, Neal. A. . The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network, 2012, 26.

"When asked how often they were harassed or threatened by students at their school via electronic mediums (e.g., text messages, emails, instant messages, or postings on Internet sites such as Facebook), a little more than half (55.2%) of LGBT students reported experiencing this type of harassment in the past year. Almost a fifth (17.5%) had experienced it often or frequently."

+ Show source

Bartkiewicz, Mark J., Boesen, Madelyn. J., & Palmer, Neal. A. . The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network, 2012, 26.

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66
A quarter (26 %) of all EU LGBT survey respondents had been attacked or threatened with violence in the previous five years.
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European Agency for Fundamental Rights. LGBT persons’ experiences of discrimination and hate crime in the EU and Croatia. Vienna: European Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2013, 2.

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18
In a survey on the EU of the respondents who had visited a café, restaurant, bar or nightclub in the year preceding the survey, one in five (18 %) had felt personally discriminated against at that location in the past year because of being LGBT.
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European Agency for Fundamental Rights. LGBT persons’ experiences of discrimination and hate crime in the EU and Croatia. Vienna: European Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2013, 1.

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75
The United Kingdom Revenge Porn Helpline figures in 2015 illustrate that 75% of 1800 calls in a 6 months period were from women.
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Government Equalities Office. “Hundreds of Victim–Survivors of Revenge Porn Seek Support from Helpline”. Published 23 August 2015.

22
The National Transgender Discrimination Survey (NTDS), found that 63% of participants experienced a serious act of discrimination such as job loss, eviction or denial of medical services. Access to buses, trains and taxis also illustrate discrimination with 22% of particpants reporting harassment, 4% reported a physical assualt and a further 9% noted denail of equal treatment.
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Grant, Jaime, Motter, Lisa and Tanis Justin. Injustice at every turn: A report of the national transgender discrimination survey. Washington: National Centre for Transgender Equality, 2011.

15,000 women and children
Children and women are common targets of image based abuse. A recent report found that a single perpetrator was found to have ‘15,000 webcam-video captures, 900 audio recording and 13,000 screen captures’, these were predominantly of women.
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Wittes, Benjamin, Poplin, Cody, Jurecic, Quinta and Spera Clera. Closing the Sextortion Sentencing Gap: A Legislative Proposal. Washington: Brookings Institution, 2016.

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13
In an Indonesian survey, women were 13 times more likely to experience street harassment than men. 3 out of 5 women had experienced street harassment.
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Kosalisi Ruang Pubik Aman. Harassment Survey in Public Spaces. Jakarta: Kosalisi Ruang Pubik Aman, 2018.

68
68% of women in Quito, Ecuador experience some form of sexual violence in the last 12 months.
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UN Women. Safe cities global initiative: In brief. New York: UN Women, 2013, 2.

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55
55% of women in six markets in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea had experienced some form of sexual violence in market spaces in the past 12 months.
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UN Women Papua New Guinea. Making Port Moresby safer for women and girls: Report on scoping study findings. Port Moresby: UN Women, 2011, 7.

118 cases
During the first six months of 2019, 118 criminal cases of bride kidnapping were being pursued across the country. According to latest statistics, 1 out of 11 girls aged 15 to 19 years old in Kyrgyzstan are married. UNICEF estimates that many more cases took place, but too often these incidents go unreported.
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Alymbekova, Aiperi. “I never said ‘YES’. The story of Aisuluu, a survivor of bride kidnapping.” UNICEF. Published 26 November 2019. https://www.unicef.org/eca/stories/i-never-said-yes.

11,800 cases
According to data by the NGO Women Support Centre, which works to eliminate violence against women, there are at least 11,800 cases of forced abduction of women and girls every year in Kyrgyzstan, with more than 2,000 of those girls reported being raped as well.
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UN Women. “New law in Kyrgyzstan toughens penalties for bride kidnapping.” February 6 2013. https://www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2013/2/new-law-in-kyrgyzstan-toughens-penalties-for-bride-kidnapping#edn1.

79
A YouGov poll of 2,013 adults aged between 18 and 24 who drink in bars, clubs or pubs found that: 79% of women said they expected inappropriate comments, touching and behaviour on a night out toward them or their friends.
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Greater London Authority. Womens Night Safety Charter Toolkit. London: Greater London Authority, 2019, 3.

"A YouGov poll of 2,013 adults aged between 18 and 24 who drink in bars, clubs or pubs found that: 63% of women and 26% of men said they had experienced unacceptable behaviour."

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Greater London Authority. Womens Night Safety Charter Toolkit. London: Greater London Authority, 2019, 3.

"A YouGov poll of 2,013 adults aged between 18 and 24 who drink in bars, clubs or pubs found that: 72% said they had seen some form of sexual harassment."

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Greater London Authority. Womens Night Safety Charter Toolkit. London: Greater London Authority, 2019, 3.

678 cases
A report in 2017 found 678 cases of femicide in Mexico. It illustrated a 31.7% increase in the number of women presumed victims of intentional homicide and a 42.6% increase in presumed cases of femicide between 2015 and 2017. The report detailed a further 61,040 women presumed victims of wilful injury.
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Amnesty International. Mexico Submission to the Committee on the Elimnation of Discrimination Against Women. London: Amnesty International Ltd, 2018, 5.

"In Russia, if the perpetrator has reached 18 years of age and has committed statutory rape with a minor below 16, he is exempt from punishment if he marries the victim."

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Equality Now. Equality Now Impact Report 2017. New York: Equality Now, 2017, 3.

2.2 B
Global estimates of the number of women lacking legal protection against sexual harassment in public places is 2.2 billion. Estimates are higher when based on the lack of criminal penalties for perpetrators.
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Taraves, Paula, Wood, Quentin. Ending Violence Against Women and Girls Gobal and Regional Trends in Womens Legal Protection Against Domestic Violence and Sexual Haraasment. London: Children's Investment Fund and Global Partnership for Education, 2018, 2.

"Cyberstalking – stalking by means of email, text messages or the internet – concerns young women in particular. Of all 18- to 29-year-old women, 4 % have experienced cyberstalking in the 12 months before the survey interview, compared with 0.3 % of women who are 60 years old or older."

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European Agency for Fundamental Rights. Violence against women: an EU-Wide Survey. Main Results. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015, 81.

1000 + Indigenous women
As of March 31, 2010, NWAC has gathered information regarding 582 cases of missing or murdered Indigenous women and girls across the country from the past 30 years. Civil society organizations have long claimed that the number could be much higher, and new research indicates that over 1000 indigenous women could be missing or dead across Canada.
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Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women in British Columbia, Canada. Washington: Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 2014, 49.

3 x
Indigenous women are significantly overrepresented as victims of homicide and are also three times more likely to be victims of violence than non-indigenous women.
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Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women in British Columbia, Canada. Washington: Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 2014, 49.

4 x
Indigenous women and girls in Canada have been murdered or have gone missing at a rate four times higher than the rate of representation of indigenous women in the Canadian population which is 4.3%.
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Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women in British Columbia, Canada. Washington: Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 2014, 11.

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8
According to a press release by the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples indigenous women are eight times more likely to be murdered than nonindigenous women.
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Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women in British Columbia, Canada. Washington: Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, 2014, 49.

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1 in 3 women
According to Statistics Canada: One in three (32%) women and one in eight (13%) men experienced unwanted sexual behaviour in public. For both men and women, younger age and sexual orientation increased the odds of experiencing this behaviour more than any other factor.
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Cotter, Adam, and Laura Savage. "Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces." Juristat: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Published December 5, 2019.

1 in 3 women
According to the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces conducted by Statistics Canada, one in three women and one in eight men feel uncomfortable or unsafe in public because of another’s behaviour.
+ Show source

Cotter, Adam, and Laura Savage. "Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces." Juristat: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Published December 5, 2019.

"According to the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces conducted by Statistics Canada, the most common types of unwanted sexual behaviour experienced by women in public were unwanted sexual attention (25%), unwanted physical contact (17%), and unwanted comments about their sex or gender (12%)."

+ Show source

Cotter, Adam, and Laura Savage. "Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces." Juristat: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Published December 5, 2019.

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1 in 5
According to the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces conducted by Statistics Canada, one in five (18%) women experienced online harassment in the 12 months preceding the survey, slightly above the proportion of men (14%). Women were more likely than men to know the perpetrator. Women (28%) were more likely than men (19%) to have taken measures such as blocking others online or deleting accounts in order to protect themselves from online harassment.
+ Show source

Cotter, Adam, and Laura Savage. "Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces." Juristat: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Published December 5, 2019.

"According to the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces conducted by Statistics Canada, for women, being single or having a disability (each with 1.8 times higher odds) remained associated with the likelihood of experiencing unwanted sexual behaviour in public even after controlling for other factors"

+ Show source

Cotter, Adam, and Laura Savage. "Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces." Juristat: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Published December 5, 2019.

34
According to the Statistics Canada agency, women living in the core of larger cities more likely to experience unwanted behaviours in public han those who lived in a rural area...One in three (34%) women living in the core of a CMA or CA experienced unwanted sexual behaviour in a public place, compared with one in four of those living in a rural area (26%) or outside the core of a CMA or CA (27%).
+ Show source

Cotter, Adam, and Laura Savage. "Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces." Juristat: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Published December 5, 2019.

3 x
Being a sexual minority increased the odds of experiencing unwanted sexual behaviour in public by 2.8 times when compared to heterosexual women.
+ Show source

Cotter, Adam, and Laura Savage. "Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces." Juristat: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Published December 5, 2019.

88
According to the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces conducted by Statistics Canada, a male stranger acting alone is most often responsible for unwanted sexual behaviour in public...Nine in ten (88%) women said that, when it came to the most serious instance they experienced, a man was the person responsible.
+ Show source

Cotter, Adam, and Laura Savage. "Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces." Juristat: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Published December 5, 2019.

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40
(In Canada) Many Internet users take measures to protect themselves from harassment...Women aged 15 to 24 years were more likely than any other age group to have taken protective measures online, with 40% having done so.
+ Show source

Cotter, Adam, and Laura Savage. "Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces." Juristat: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Published December 5, 2019.

3.8 M
According to the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces conducted by Statistics Canada, the most common type of unwanted behaviour women experienced in public was unwanted sexual attention, such as comments, gestures, body language, whistles, or calls. More than 3.8 million women, or 25% of those 15 years of age and older, stated that they had experienced this type of behaviour in public in the past 12 months.
+ Show source

Cotter, Adam, and Laura Savage. "Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces." Juristat: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Published December 5, 2019.

2 x
In Canada women with disabilities are twice as likely as women without disabilities to have experienced sexual assault.
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Adam, Cotter. “Violent victimization of women with disabilities”. Statistics Canada. Published March 15, 2018.

1 in 5
1 in 5 Australians have experienced image-based abuse.
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Henry, Nicola, Anastasia Powell, and Asher Flynn. "Not just ‘revenge pornography’: Australians’ experiences of image-based abuse." A summary report. Melbourne: RMIT University, 2017, 2.

1 in 2 Indigenous Australians
1 in 2 Indigenous Australians report image-based abuse victimisation.
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Henry, Nicola, Anastasia Powell, and Asher Flynn. "Not just ‘revenge pornography’: Australians’ experiences of image-based abuse." A summary report. Melbourne: RMIT University, 2017, 2.

68
Findings from a national survey on sexual harassment found that women in the United States most frequently reported experiencing sexual harassment in a public space like a street, park or store (68% of women).
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UC San Diego Center on Gender Equity and Health, Stop Street Harassment. Measuring #MeToo: A National Study on Sexual Harassment and Assault. San Diego: UC San Diego Centre on Gender Equity and Health, 2019, 10.

40
Four in 10 women (40%) surveyed had experienced cyber sexual harassment.
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UC San Diego Center on Gender Equity and Health, Stop Street Harassment. Measuring #MeToo: A National Study on Sexual Harassment and Assault. San Diego: UC San Diego Centre on Gender Equity and Health, 2019, 10.

5712 reports
The National Crime Information Center reports that, in 2016, there were 5,712 reports of missing American Indian and Alaska Native women and girls, though the US Department of Justice’s federal missing persons database, NamUs, only logged 116 cases.
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Lucchesi, Annita and Echo-Hawk Abigail. Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women & Girls: A snapshot of data from 71 urban cities in the United States. Seattle: Urban Indian Health Institute, 2018, 2.

700 women
In 2008, more than 700 women were murdered in Guatemala; many of these murders were preceded by brutal sexual abuse and torture (24). A 2009 human rights campaign reported that there had been more than 500 femicides per year in Guatemala since 2001.
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Pan American Health Organisation. Understanding and addressing violence against women. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organisation, 2012, 3.

500 femicides
A 2009 human rights campaign reported that there had been more than 500 femicides per year in Guatemala since 2001.
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Pan American Health Organisation. Understanding and addressing violence against women. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organisation, 2012, 3.

"2019 marked the first year that 'upskirting' in the United Kingdom became a criminal offence. The Crown Prosecution Service released data finding that 70 per cent of these crimes took place in the aisles of retail stores – with evidence that some of the men caught had researched techniques to conceal cameras online. Also ten men were convicted of 16 offences in the legislations first year."

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Crown Prosecution Service. “Ten men prosecuted in first year of upskirting legislation”. Published 31 December 2019. https://www.cps.gov.uk/cps/news/ten-men-prosecuted-first-year-upskirting-legislation

60 transgender people
Over 60 transgender pepole were reported killed in Pakistan in 2018 alone.
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Human Rights Campaign Foundation. DISMANTLING A CULTURE OF VIOLENCE Understanding Anti-Transgender Violence and Ending the Crisis. Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Campaign Foundation, 2018, 14.

"Over 2300 transgender people are known to be killed in the last decade in dozens of countries, according to figures released by TransRespect Versus Transphobia WorldWide, a global project combining the efforts of advocates in more than 100 countries."

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Human Rights Campaign Foundation. DISMANTLING A CULTURE OF VIOLENCE Understanding Anti-Transgender Violence and Ending the Crisis. Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Campaign Foundation, 2018, 14.

25
(Egypt) Around one quarter of girls 18-19 years were subjected to harassment in the past year at streets, markets, squares and alike.
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Duvvury, Nata., Marcos, Marga., Gadallah, May., Attia, Shadia., Adly, Naglaa, Maged, Wafaa, & Haddad, Germaine. The Egypt economic cost of gender-based violence survey (ECGBVS) 2015. Cairo: United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), 2015, 121.

2.5 M
Around 2.5 million women suffered from the various forms of sexual harassment on streets last year alone (Egypt 2015).
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Duvvury, Nata., Marcos, Marga., Gadallah, May., Attia, Shadia., Adly, Naglaa, Maged, Wafaa, & Haddad, Germaine. The Egypt economic cost of gender-based violence survey (ECGBVS) 2015. Cairo: United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), 2015, 4.

1.7 M
More than 1.7 million women suffer forms of sexual harassment on public transport (Egypt).
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Duvvury, Nata., Marcos, Marga., Gadallah, May., Attia, Shadia., Adly, Naglaa, Maged, Wafaa, & Haddad, Germaine. The Egypt economic cost of gender-based violence survey (ECGBVS) 2015. Cairo: United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), 2015, 4.

3000 victims
According to Acid Survivors Foundation (ASF) Bangladesh, there have been 3,000 reported acid attack victims in the country since 1999.
+ Show source

Avon Global Center for Women and Justice at Cornell Law School, the Committee on International Human Rights of the New York City Bar Association, the Cornell Law School International Human Rights Clinic, and the Virtue Foundation. Combating Acid Violence in Bangladesh, India and Cambodia. New York City:  Avon Global Center for Women and Justice at Cornell Law School and the New York City Bar Association, 2011, 1.

153 cases
A search of Indian newspapers found 153 reported cases of acid violence from January 2002 to October 2010.
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Avon Global Center for Women and Justice at Cornell Law School, the Committee on International Human Rights of the New York City Bar Association, the Cornell Law School International Human Rights Clinic, and the Virtue Foundation. Combating Acid Violence in Bangladesh, India and Cambodia. New York City:  Avon Global Center for Women and Justice at Cornell Law School and the New York City Bar Association, 2011, 1.

271 victims
According to data gathered by the Cambodian Acid Survivors Charity on people treated in hospitals for acid attacks, there have been 271 acid violence victims between 1985 and June 2010 in Cambodia. Governments in these countries do not keep official statistics of acid attacks, and there are likely many more attacks than these figures reveal.
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Avon Global Center for Women and Justice at Cornell Law School, the Committee on International Human Rights of the New York City Bar Association, the Cornell Law School International Human Rights Clinic, and the Virtue Foundation. Combating Acid Violence in Bangladesh, India and Cambodia. New York City:  Avon Global Center for Women and Justice at Cornell Law School and the New York City Bar Association, 2011, 1.

"Acid attacks occur in private and public spaces. Attackers throw acid through open home windows at night or from moving motorcycles in markets in broad daylight. Acid violence has devastating health consequences for victims."

+ Show source

Avon Global Center for Women and Justice at Cornell Law School, the Committee on International Human Rights of the New York City Bar Association, the Cornell Law School International Human Rights Clinic, and the Virtue Foundation. Combating Acid Violence in Bangladesh, India and Cambodia. New York City:  Avon Global Center for Women and Justice at Cornell Law School and the New York City Bar Association, 2011, 1.

66
Among the 47 male harassers, 31 (66%) suggested that women avoid “going out after dark,” and 21 (45%) noted that women should avoid “wearing certain clothes.” This finding lends support to studies showing that male harassers often rationalize their actions by blaming women who wear clothing that they subjectively perceive as provocative or unprofessional. (Nepal)
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Rosenbaum, Mark, Edwards, Karen, Malla, Binayak, Adhikary, Jyoti, Regmi and Germán Contreras Ramírez. "Street harassment is marketplace discrimination: The impact of street harassment on young female consumers’ marketplace experiences." Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 57 (2020): 102220, 7.

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1 in 4
1 and 4 female transit riders in Ile-de-France part of Paris cannot change their travel mode despite feeling unsafe “transit captives”.
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Ding, Hao, Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia and Agrawal, Asha Weinstein. "Sexual Harassment and Assault in Transit Environments: A Review of the English-language Literature." Journal of Planning Literature 35, no. 3, (2020): 267-280, 274.

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48
In the Ile-de-France a part of Paris, 48% of surveyed female transit riders reported feeling unsafe in transport environments and considered avoiding using transit after dark, avoiding certain transit settings, or changing their means of transportation.
+ Show source

Ding, Hao, Anastasia, Loukaitou-Sideris and Agrawal, Asha Weinstein. "Sexual Harassment and Assault in Transit Environments: A Review of the English-language Literature." Journal of Planning Literature 35, no. 3, (2020): 267-280, 274.

81
In Sweden, 81% of the women reported having been sexually harassed on one or more occasions after the age of 15.
+ Show source

Mellgren, Caroline, Mika Andersson, and Anna-Karin Ivert. "“It happens all the time”: Women’s experiences and normalization of sexual harassment in public space." Women & Criminal Justice 28, no. 4 (2018): 262-281, 264.

4 in 10
A population-based study of women’s and men’s violent victimization in Sweden confirms the widespread violence against women and found that about 4 in 10 women had been sexually harassed on at least one occasion since age 18, and 1 in 10 in the last 12 months.
+ Show source

Mellgren, Caroline, Mika Andersson, and Anna-Karin Ivert. "“It happens all the time”: Women’s experiences and normalization of sexual harassment in public space." Women & Criminal Justice 28, no. 4 (2018): 262-281, 264.

33
A recent report from the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (BRÅ, 2017b) that presents the results from the latest annual national fear of crime survey (NTU) shows that in 2016 about one third of the women reported that they do not feel safe when they are outdoors alone late at night in their own neighborhood, or that they do not go out because of fear of Victimization.
+ Show source

Mellgren, Caroline, Mika Andersson, and Anna-Karin Ivert. "“It happens all the time”: Women’s experiences and normalization of sexual harassment in public space." Women & Criminal Justice 28, no. 4 (2018): 262-281, 264.

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50
Nearly one in two Italian women (46%) do not feel safe walking alone at night in the city or area where they live in. These shares are amongst the highest among OECD countries, placing Italy fifth in the OECD ranking for women.
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OECD.Society at a Glance 2019. A Spotlight on LGBT People. How does Italy Compare?”. Published March 27, 2019. https://www.oecd.org/italy/sag2019-italy-en.pdf.

90
Rates of non-disclosure are higher in Indigenous than non-Indigenous communities, with studies indicating that around 90 percent of violence against Indigenous women is not disclosed. (Australia)
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Willis, Matthew. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. Non-disclosure of violence in Australian Indigenous communities. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 2011, 1-11, 1.

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40
While 79 per cent of men feel safe walking alone at night in their community, only around half of all women do (52 per cent). Mirroring this result, 40 per cent of women feel unsafe in their own community at night, a figure 23 per cent higher than men.
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Johnson, Molly, and Bennett Ebony. Everyday sexism: Australian women's experiences of street harassment. Canberra: Australia Institute, 2015, 8.

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79
The most common forms of non-physical street harassment are honking and wolf whistling as shown in Figure 1 (79 per cent). More than half of all women have experienced lewd gestures (68 per cent), sexist (62 per cent) or lewd comments (65 per cent) While another 60 per cent have been subject to repeated unwelcome sexual advances. (Australia)
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Johnson, Molly, and Bennett Ebony. Everyday sexism: Australian women's experiences of street harassment. Canberra: Australia Institute, 2015, 4.

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85
A study by Plan International found that in Zimbabwe 85% of girls surveyed agreed with the statement “girls should not be out in public places after dark".
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Plan International Australia, Our Watch. A Right to the Night. Australian girls on their safety in public places. Melbourne: Plan International Australia, Our Watch, 2016, 6.

30
A study by Plan International found that in Australia of young women and girls surveyed 30% agreed with the statement “Girls should not be out in public places after dark”.
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Plan International Australia, Our Watch. A Right to the Night. Australian girls on their safety in public places. Melbourne: Plan International Australia, Our Watch, 2016, 3.

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23
A study by Plan International found that in Australia of the young women and girls surveyed 23% agreed with the statement that ‘Girls should not travel alone on public transport.’
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Plan International Australia, Our Watch. A Right to the Night. Australian girls on their safety in public places. Melbourne: Plan International Australia, Our Watch, 2016, 5.

66
A study by Plan International surveying young women and girls in Pakistan, found that 66% agreed with this statement “girls should not be out in public places after dark.”
+ Show source

Plan International Australia, Our Watch. A Right to the Night. Australian girls on their safety in public places. Melbourne: Plan International Australia, Our Watch, 2016, 6.

"Gendered cyber-hate in the form of rape threats and sexualized vitriol have become regular aspects of women’s quotidian experiences online."

+ Show source

Vitak, Jessica, Chadha, Kalyani, Steiner, Linda and Zahra Ashktorab. "Identifying women's experiences with and strategies for mitigating negative effects of online harassment." In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, Portland, 2017, pp. 1231-1245, 1231. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. 2017.

"Gendered cyber-hate can discourage women’s participation in the public sphere."

+ Show source

Vitak, Jessica, Kalyani, Chadha, Linda, Steiner and Zahra Ashktorab. "Identifying women's experiences with and strategies for mitigating negative effects of online harassment." In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, Portland, 2017, 1231-1245, 1321. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. 2017.

"High profile teen suicides connected to cyberbullying reveal the severe toll of harassment on young women."

+ Show source

Vitak, Jessica, Chadha, Kalyani, Steiner, Linda and Zahra Ashktorab. "Identifying women's experiences with and strategies for mitigating negative effects of online harassment." In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, Portland, 2017, pp. 1231-1245, 1239. New York: Association for Computing Machinery. 2017.

"Street Harassment: the easiest way to debilitate a person’s liberty to walk the streets without fear."

+ Show source

Roenius, Amanda. "My Name Is Not Beautiful, and, No, I Do Not Want to Smile: Paving the Path for Street Harassment Legislation in Illinois." DePaul L. Rev. 65 (2015): 831, 831.

"No uniform law currently exists to protect individuals from many types of street harassment, the fundamental rights to mobility and bodily integrity are not being met."

+ Show source

Roenius, Amanda. "My Name Is Not Beautiful, and, No, I Do Not Want to Smile: Paving the Path for Street Harassment Legislation in Illinois." DePaul L. Rev. 65 (2015): 831, 831.

"Sexual harassment, of course, does not just happen at night."

+ Show source

Kalms, Nikki, Matthewson, Gill and Webb, Isabella. Safety after dark: Creating a city for women living and working in Sydney. Sydney: Committee for Sydney, 2019, 6.

55
Based on all 11 items used in the survey to measure sexual harassment, every second woman (55 %) in the EU has experienced sexual harassment at least once since the age of 15, and one in five women (21 %) in the 12 months before the survey.
+ Show source

European Agency for Fundamental Rights. Violence against women: an EU-Wide Survey. Main Results. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015, 95.

32
This survey found that 55% of women in the EU have experience sexual harassment at least once since the age of 15 and among those who 32 % stated that the perpetrator was from their employment context – such as a boss or a customer.
+ Show source

European Agency for Fundamental Rights. Violence against women: an EU-Wide Survey. Main Results. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015, 95.

1 in 10 women
1 in 10 women report victimisation of cyber-harassment since the age of 15 such as receiving unwanted, offensive sexually explicit emails or sexual advances on social networking sites. The highest risk factor of victimisation is the age group: 18 and 29 years.
+ Show source

European Agency for Fundamental Rights. Violence against women: an EU-Wide Survey. Main Results. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015, 95.

15
Women are most worried about possible assault by strangers – 15 % of women have worried about this at least sometimes in the 12 months before the interview.
+ Show source

European Agency for Fundamental Rights. Violence against women: an EU-Wide Survey. Main Results. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015, 139.

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1 in 5
In Europe, 21% or 1 in 5 women have worried sometimes in the previous 12 months about the possibility of being victimised by physical or sexual assault
+ Show source

European Agency for Fundamental Rights. Violence against women: an EU-Wide Survey. Main Results. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015, 139.

"Slightly more than half of all women in the EU (53 %) avoid certain situations or places, at least sometimes, for fear of being physically or sexually assaulted."

+ Show source

European Agency for Fundamental Rights. Violence against women: an EU-Wide Survey. Main Results. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015, 139.

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4 in 10
An EU study found four out of 10 women (40 %) avoid public places where there are no other people around, and a similar percentage (37 %) deliberately avoid taking certain streets or going to certain areas for fear of being physically or sexually assaulted.
+ Show source

European Agency for Fundamental Rights. Violence against women: an EU-Wide Survey. Main Results. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015, 139.

1 in 7 women
An EU study found one in seven women (14 %) avoids leaving home alone for fear of physical or sexual assault.
+ Show source

European Agency for Fundamental Rights. Violence against women: an EU-Wide Survey. Main Results. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015, 139.

"An EU study found three out of 10 women (31 %) avoid opening their front door when home alone."

+ Show source

European Agency for Fundamental Rights. Violence against women: an EU-Wide Survey. Main Results. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015, 139.

20
Even more frightening are incidents where perpetrators operate in groups; 20% of those respondents travelling to and from work at night were the subject of group harassment and a high nearly one-third of those out in the city recreationally (Sydney).
+ Show source

Kalms, Nikki, Matthewson, Gill and Webb, Isabella. Safety after dark: Creating a city for women living and working in Sydney. Sydney: Committee for Sydney, 2019, 2.

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1 in 5
Typically, women described particular locations as well- known for harassment and assault....One in five people that participated in this study said that they never returned to a location where they experience harassment or violence (Sydney).
+ Show source

Kalms, Nikki, Gill, Matthewson and Isabella, Webb. Safety after dark: Creating a city for women living and working in Sydney. Sydney: Committee for Sydney, 2019, 2.

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90
When it comes to men harassing women, it is important to recognize that these intrusions often begin for women at a young age. A 2010 study by the Bangladesh National Women Lawyers Association, for instance, found that almost 90 percent of girls aged 10–18 years had faced street harassment, particularly by street vendors, rickshaw pullers, bus drivers,and bus passengers.
+ Show source

Kearl, Holly. Stop street harassment: Making public places safe and welcoming for women. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2010, 2.

9 out of 10
Women in 2012 found that 9 out of 10 women in Delhi had experienced some form of sexual violence in their lifetimes, and 6 in 10 had faced it in the previous six months. Nearly 73 percent of women said they feel unsafe in public spaces.
+ Show source

Kearl, Holly. Stop street harassment: Making public places safe and welcoming for women. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2010, 123.

50
Half of men surveyed said they had harassed or physically hurt women and girls in public spaces. (Dehli)
+ Show source

Kearl, Holly. Stop street harassment: Making public places safe and welcoming for women. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2010, 123.

68
The first UK study examining tertiary students’ experiences of sexual violence highlighted that nearly one in four females had experienced a sexual assault during their time as a student, 14 per cent have experienced serious physical or sexual assault. 68 per cent have been subject to verbal or physical sexual harassment.
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National Union of Students. National Union of Students (NUS) (2010) Hidden Marks: A study of women students’ experiences of harassment, stalking, violence and sexual assault. London: National Union of Students. 2010, 3.

26
Streets and sidewalks are the public spaces where street harassment most commonly occurs (67% of women and 43% of men reported harassment there), but harassment also happened in public spaces such as stores, restaurants, movie theaters, and malls (26% of women and 28% of men).
+ Show source

Kearl, Holly. Unsafe and harassed in public spaces: A national street harassment report. Reston: Stop Street Harassment, 2014, 6.

40
A XYX Lab study in Kampala found that 40% of the participants recording bad pins reported being resigned to the fact that such incidents are so frequent that they are used to them.
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Kalms, Nicole, Matthewson, Gill, and Tanner Sophie. Free To Be: Kampala. Surrey, United Kingdom: Plan International, 2018, 4.

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98
The Safer Cities for Girls Programme in Lima, where 98% of girls reported that adolescents are sexually harassed when travelling in public transportation.
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Kalms, Nicole, Gill Matthewson and Sophie Tanner . Free to Be. Lima. Surrey: Plan International, 2019, 4.

"'On the street' was identified as the most common place for bad places in Lima."

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Kalms, Nicole, Matthewson, Gill, and Tanner Sophie. Free to Be. Lima. Surrey: Plan International, 2019, 7.

84
Sexual harassment dominated the comments on bad pins (84%) and gender-based discrimination was identified as the most common form of discrimination (Lima) .
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Kalms, Nicole, Matthewson, Gill, and Tanner Sophie. Free to Be. Lima. Surrey: Plan International, 2019, 10.

78
Gender-based discrimination (78%) was identified as the most common form of discrimination affecting the incidents. (Madrid)
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Kalms, Nicole, Matthewson, Gill, and Tanner Sophie. Free to Be. Madrid. Surrey: Plan International, 2019, 11.

67
On the street was identified as the most common place for both the bad pins and the good ones (67% and 52% respectively). (Madrid)
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Kalms, Nicole, Matthewson, Gill, and Tanner Sophie. Free to Be. Madrid. Surrey: Plan International, 2019, 1.

91
At least 22 transgender and gender non-confoming people were killed in the US in 2019. Of these 91% of them were black women, 81% were under the age of 30 and 68% of them lived in the South.
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Human Rights Campaign Foundation. A National Epidemic: Fatal Anti-Transgender Violence in the United States in 2019. Washington, D.C., Human Rights Campaign Foundation, 2019, 2.

281
Reports indicate that there was a 281% increase in disappeared women, up from 91 cases in 2008 to 347 cases in 2013. (Honduras)
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Obinna, Denise N. "Seeking sanctuary: violence against women in El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala." Violence against women 1, no. 22 (2020): 1-22, 12.

18 hours
A woman was murdered every 18 hours in El Salvador, according to 2017 data.
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Obinna, Denise N. "Seeking sanctuary: violence against women in El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala." Violence against women 1, no. 22 (2020): 1-22, 2.

500 murders
Statistics of Violence Against Women (Estadísticas de Violencia en contra de la Mujer) suggests that there were up to 500 murders of women in 2017. The highest cohort of female victims is aged between 25 and 29 years at 16.3% of the femicides reported.
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Obinna, Denise N. "Seeking sanctuary: violence against women in El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala." Violence against women 1, no. 22 (2020): 1-22, 15.

"Sexual harassment in public spaces is a manifestation of gender inequalities. Young men in India develop in a male-dominated context with little contact with female peers, little or no sex education, and limited modelling of male–female relationships. Gender norms are often solidified in young Adulthood."

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Zietz, Susannah, and Madhumita Das. "‘Nobody teases good girls’: A qualitative study on perceptions of sexual harassment among young men in a slum of Mumbai." Global public health 13, no. 9 (2018): 1229-1240, 1231.

"The Metropolitan District of Quito has run, since 2017, an initiative to reduce harassment..., which allows sexual violence to be reported in real time, in a way that is confidential and free. Through mobile phone messages, victims or witnesses of violence in public transportation can notify the control centre and specialised personnel."

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Arnan, Gutiérrez. Llamas,Felipe. Martínez-Osés, Pablo.  Violence in the metropolis: responses to a global issue. Barcelona: Metropolis. World Association of the Major Metropolises, 2020, 15.

"In March 2013, India’s Parliament passed a comprehensive bill with almost unprecedented speed that imposed stronger penalties on men who sexually assault women and criminalized offenses like stalking and voyeurism. It expanded the definition of rape, increased the penalty for gang rape, and introduced the death penalty for repeat offenders. A three-member panel that spoke with hundreds of activists and reviewed laws in other countries wrote the law."

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Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbra: Praeger, 2015, 126.

2608 murders
Between 1 January 2008 and 30 September 2019 3314 murders of trans and gender-diverse people were registered world wide. 2608 of these were in Central and South America.
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TMM Absolute Numbers. Transrespect versus Transphobia, Worldwide. Transrespect vs Transphobia Worldwide. Accessed 13 November 2020.

"Public harassment is predominantly perpetrated by men against women and LGBTQ+ people, and as such must be understood as implicated in systems of power and oppression relating to gender, sexuality, and race, amongst others."

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Fileborn, Bianca. “Embodied Geographies. Navigating street harassment.” In In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 37- 48, 37. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"Street harassment shapes women’s embodiment: our lived experiences of our bodies, and potential for action in moving through the world."

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Fileborn, Bianca. “Embodied Geographies. Navigating street harassment.” In In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 37- 48, 38. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"Public space is normatively coded as masculine and heterosexual"

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Fileborn, Bianca. “Embodied Geographies. Navigating street harassment.” In In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 37- 48, 39. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"Women of colour experience harassment from men in public space that intertwines sexualised and racialised abuse."

"Women of colour experience harassment from men in public space that intertwines sexualised and racialised abuse."

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Tyler, Megan and Maddy Coy. “Pornographication and Heterosexualisation in Public Space.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 49-59, 50. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"The expectation of the dancer and client relationship usually contained inside the strip club may extend into urban space, shaping cities as heterosexist spaces where women may be expected to mimic aspects of the sex industry and subjugate themselves to men’s desires, and where sexual aggression becomes expected and tolerated."

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Tyler, Megan and Maddy Coy. “Pornographication and Heterosexualisation in Public Space.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 49-59, 50, 52. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"Women’s freedom is therefore limited or curtailed by the pornographication of public space in ways that cannot be mitigated through individual avoidance actions."

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Tyler, Megan and Maddy Coy. “Pornographication and Heterosexualisation in Public Space.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 49-59, 55. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

500 unliscensed brothels
In the urban spaces of Melbourne, there is an estimated 500 unliscensed brothels and licensed premises operating, the majority of which pose as massage businesses.
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Larin, Tegan. “(In)visible sites of the sex industry Massage parlours and the construction of space.” In, Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 60-70, 60. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"Asian women are overrepresented in massage parlour prostitution in neoliberal cities all over the world, including in Australia."

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Larin, Tegan. “(In)visible sites of the sex industry Massage parlours and the construction of space.” In, Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 60-70, 61. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

40
An Australian study of licensed brothels in Melbourne, using a conservative method, found that over 40% of online brothel advertisements were considered ‘Asianized’
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Larin, Tegan. “(In)visible sites of the sex industry Massage parlours and the construction of space.” In, Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 60-70, 67. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

25
In over a quarter of the cases, the vehicle driver/conductors were responsible for the harassment against women. (Lahore, Pakistan)
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Yong, Adilah, Shamsulm, Harumain, Deana McDonagh, Andree Woodcock, Nikmatul Adha Nordin and Komal Faiz. “Gender Transport inequalities in malaysia and Pakistan. Barriers to female mobility.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 71- 83, 76. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"Women need to be given a voice in the planning, design, implementation, and operation of integrated transport measures so that more gender- and diversity-sensitive transport can be provided."

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Yong, Adilah, Shamsulm, Harumain, Deana McDonagh, Andree Woodcock, Nikmatul Adha Nordin and Komal Faiz. “Gender Transport inequalities in malaysia and Pakistan. Barriers to female mobility.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 71- 83, 80. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"The acts of vandalism against the SuitSupply campaign not only raise questions around what acceptance of homosexuality actually means in the Netherlands, but also reveal how urban public space is fundamentally shaped by the dynamics of gender and sexuality."

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Maher, Gabriel A. and Roberto Pérez Gayo. “A glitch in the system. Deconstructing JCDecaux|decoding Suitsupply.”  In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 84- 101, 86. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"According to data provided by the Dutch Central Agency for Statistics, everyday spaces in the Netherlands are often experienced by LGTBQIA+ individuals as aggressively heterosexual."

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Maher, Gabriel A. and Roberto Pérez Gayo. “A glitch in the system. Deconstructing JCDecaux|decoding Suitsupply.”  In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 84- 101, 86. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"Extending beyond key words and bubble diagrams, gender-sensitive methods must activate solutions informed by gender studies, gender-disaggregated data, and the expertise of queer and feminist designers, researchers, and scholars."

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Kalms, Nicole and Gene Bawden. “Lived experience. Participatory practices for gender sensitive spaces and places.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 102- 114, 107. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"How can design address the crisis of gender inequality in cities? What designerly methods can redress the bias and neutrality imbedded in policy and urban design process?"

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Kalms, Nicole and Gene Bawden. “Lived experience. Participatory practices for gender sensitive spaces and places.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 102- 114, 103. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"The city is male, a place built on masculine conquests conceived in a tangle of money, influence, power and corruption. A man’s world is a place of materialism without morality"

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Bawden, Gene. “Introduction. Histories of the gendered city.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 121-125, 121. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"The experiences not only of women, but of Indigenous peoples and members of the LGBTQI+ community are all shaped by the prevailing realities and the patriarchal context of ‘city.’"

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Bawden, Gene. “Introduction. Histories of the gendered city.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 121-125, 122. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"We need a non-sexist, non-binary, anti-racist, financially equitable, and more city."

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Lloyd, Justine. “The non-sexist city. Then and now.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 126-136, 133. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"The Jazz Age of the 1920s saw women frequently engage dance in public spaces as an act of resistance, challenging ideals of public decency through the dramatisation of women’s overt sexuality."

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Berry, Jess. “Catwalking the city The pleasures and politics of fashioning the metropolis.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 137-148, 146. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"For women to act without purpose in public space challenges proprieties that control women’s movements, disrupting gendered ways of being in the city."

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Berry, Jess. “Catwalking the city The pleasures and politics of fashioning the metropolis.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 137-148, 143. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"The fashioned city is one such representational space, mediating between social relations and spatial practices, where women’s engagement with the fashioned city can be a mode for intervention."

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Berry, Jess. “Catwalking the city The pleasures and politics of fashioning the metropolis.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 137-148, 139. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"As such, the butch is not quite flâneur, not quite f lâneuse; instead she finds a new form of expression that traverses gender boundaries in the way that butches traverse the city."

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Tooth, Murphy, Amy. “Butch on the streets. The butch flâneur and the queering of the city.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 149-159, 151. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"As a challenge to hegemonic masculinity, and as an example of transgressive femaleness, the butch lesbian is positioned as perpetually running the gauntlet, between the privacy of the home and the semi-private space of the bar."

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Tooth, Murphy, Amy. “Butch on the streets. The butch flâneur and the queering of the city.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 149-159, 150. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"There’s a general misunderstanding of the word queer."

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Moore, Timothy and Simona Castricum. “Queering architecture Simona Castricum and Timothy Moore in conversation.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 182-193, 190. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"Queering is about changing the way that we approach things that give rise to non-normative sexualities and gender expressions; it’s inherently intersectional, anti-capitalist and anti-colonialist."

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Moore, Timothy and Simona Castricum. “Queering architecture Simona Castricum and Timothy Moore in conversation.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 182-193, 190. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"The most urgent issue facing trans people is public safety, the ability to go to the toilet, or the ability to pass through an airport secutiry checkpoint. This is about spatial planning, and spatial planning is dictated by the brief, and this is dictated by an understanding of users and how we define all of those users."

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Moore, Timothy and Simona Castricum. “Queering architecture Simona Castricum and Timothy Moore in conversation.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 182-193, 190. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"Similiar to how the word queer itself is understood in different ways, queer spaces have also been understood in divergent and not always compatiable ways."

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Vallerand, Olivier. “Beyond design education. Queering pedagogies of space.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 194-203. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

"If the LGBTQIA+ movements are forces that disrupt the modernist city, migration is another such force."

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Balaoro, Saludez, Marrz and Merve Bedir. “Beyond queer solidarity in Hong Kong. Migrant domestic workers and trans spaces.”  In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 204-215. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

41
Stonewall, Britain’s largest LGBT charity, reported that 41% of trans respondents experienced a hate crime or incident in the last year.
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Marshall, Lo. “Negotiating gender-diverse realities built on binary expectations.Public toilets in Britain.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 216-233, 218. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

48
A recent study found that 48% of trans respondents felt uncomfortable using public toilets in Britain.
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Marshall, Lo. “Negotiating gender-diverse realities built on binary expectations.Public toilets in Britain.” In Contentious Cities: Design and the Gendered Production of Space, edited by Jess Berry, Timothy Moore, Nicole Kalms, Gene Bawden, 216-233, 218. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020.

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A recent Swedish study of university students found that one in four reported one or more incidents of sexual harassment during the last year, mostly taking place in clubs and restaurants.
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Mellgren, Caroline, Mika Andersson, and Anna-Karin Ivert. "“It happens all the time”: Women’s experiences and normalization of sexual harassment in public space." Women & Criminal Justice 28, no. 4 (2018): 262-281.

55
In Kigali, baseline study shows that 55% of women reported that they were concerned about going to educational institutions after dark.
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UN Women. “SAFE CITIES AND SAFE PUBLIC SPACES.” UN Women: New York, 2015, 2.

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66
Some 66 % of respondents across all EU Member States are scared of holding hands in public with a same-sex partner.
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European Agency for Fundamental Rights. LGBT persons’ experiences of discrimination and hate crime in the EU and Croatia. Vienna: European Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2013, 2.

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Of all the OECD countries, Australia has the highest differential between the perceived safety of women and men. At least half the women in Australia do not feel safe walking alone at night.
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Community Council for Australia. The Australia We Want. Second Report. Canberra: Community Council for Australia, 2019, 13.

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79
79% of women in India have experienced some form of sexual harassment and abuse in urban communites.
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ActionAid UK. Fearless. London: ActionAid, 2016, 1.

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An Australian study study found 72% of LGBTIQ people had experienced verbal abuse, 41% threats of physical violence and 23% physical assault.
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Berman, Alan. Speaking out: Stopping homophobic and transphobic abuse in Queensland. Australian Academic Press, 2010, 36.

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An Australian study found for or transgender respondents, 92% of trans women and 55% of trans men had experienced verbal abuse; 46% of trans women and 36% of trans men had experienced physical assault.
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Berman, Alan. Speaking out: Stopping homophobic and transphobic abuse in Queensland. Australian Academic Press, 2010, 36.

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A French study on violence found that at ages 20-24, reported 14% sexual harassment and abuse while using public spaces.
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Lebugle, Amandine. "Young women in large cities are the main victims of violence in public space." Population Societies 550, no. 11 (2017): 1-4, 3.

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The most common forms of non-physical street harassment are honking and wolf whistling as shown in Figure 1 (79 per cent). More than half of all women have experienced lewd gestures (68 per cent), sexist (62 per cent) or lewd comments (65 per cent) While another 60 per cent have been subject to repeated unwelcome sexual advances. (Australia)
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Johnson, Molly, and Bennett Ebony. Everyday sexism: Australian women's experiences of street harassment. Canberra: Australia Institute, 2015, 4.

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86
According to statistics, Native American and Alaska Native women are more than 2.5 times more likely to be raped or sexually assaulted than other women in the United States; and 86 per cent of the reported cases of rape or sexual assault against American Indian and Alaska Native women are perpetrated by non-Native men.
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Corpuz, Victoria. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, Victoria Tauli Corpuz. Human Rights Council, 2015, 13.

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2 in 3
In London, two thirds of women have reported being sexually harassed in public places, including the streets and the transport system, and around 40% have experienced unwanted sexual contact.
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ActionAid UK. Fearless. London: ActionAid, 2016, 1.

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In Australia, 89% of women with disabilities and 68% of men with disabilities have experienced sexual harassment.
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Australian Human Rights Commission . Everyone’s Business: Fourth National Survey on Sexual Harassment in Australian Workplaces. Sydney: Australian Human Rights Commission, 2018, 9.

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86
According to statistics, 86 per cent of the reported cases of rape or sexual assault against American Indian and Alaska Native women are perpetrated by non-Native men.
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Corpuz, Victoria. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, Victoria Tauli Corpuz. Human Rights Council, 2015.

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According to the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces conducted by Statistics Canada women were more likely than men to know the perpetrator. Women (28%) were more likely than men (19%) to have taken measures such as blocking others online or deleting accounts in order to protect themselves from online harassment.
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Cotter, Adam, and Laura Savage. "Gender-based violence and unwanted sexual behaviour in Canada, 2018: Initial findings from the Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces." Juristat: Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Published December 5, 2019.

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7 out of 10 (69%) people In Indonesia who identified as genders other than female or male experience harassment.
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Kosalisi Ruang Pubik Aman. Harassment Survey in Public Spaces. Jakarta, Kosalisi Ruang Pubik Aman, 2018.